Innovation and Productivity in Services: Evidence from Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom
Author: Bettina Peters, Rebecca Riley, Iulia Siedschlag, Priit Vahter and John McQuinn
This paper examines the links between innovation and productivity in service enterprises. For this purpose, we use micro data from the Community Innovation Survey 2008 in Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom, and estimate an augmented structural model. Our results indicate that innovation in service enterprises is linked to higher productivity. In all three countries analysed, among the innovation types that we consider, the strongest link between innovation and productivity was found for marketing innovations. Our empirical evidence highlights the importance of internationalisation in the context of innovation outputs in all three countries. The determinants of innovation in service enterprises appear remarkably similar to the determinants of innovation in manufacturing enterprises.
Intangible investments and innovation propensity. Evidence from the Innobarometer 2013
Author: Sandro Montresor and Antonio Vezzani
This paper investigates the innovation impact of intangibles by considering the decision of firms to invest in a comprehensive set of them. By using a new survey on a large sample of firms in 28 EU (plus 8 non-EU) countries, we first identify the principal components of the resources firms invest in six kinds of intangibles. Their contribution to the firms' propensity to introduce new products and/or processes is then estimated with a two-step model, which addresses the endogeneity of the focal regressors through theoretically consistent instruments. A firm's innovativeness depends on its choice of using internal vs. external resources for its intangible investments more than on their actual amount, and on the kind of assets these investments are directed to. Intangibles need to be managed strategically in order to have an innovation impact and the policy support of this type of investment must take this strategic use into account.
The hidden costs of R&D collaboration
Author: Sara Amoroso
Many European policy initiatives continue to promote R&D collaboration in view of its expected benefits. Despite the advantages of R&D cooperation, to benefit from it, firms must create a structure to support the efficient transfer of knowledge-based assets. In fact, the set-up and administration of common resources might be costly. This paper derives the distribution of the costs associated with R&D collaboration, as they could shape firms' R&D-related investments. To ascertain these costs, we model the expected benefits from R&D cooperation with a structural dynamic monopoly model. The modelling results show that the sunk costs of innovation are lower when collaborating with a research partner, and that a firm's probability of investing in R&D or innovation increases with the level of productivity increase expected from collaborating in R&D and innovation. We also find that the sunk costs of innovation are 1.5 to 3 times lower than the sunk costs of R&D. Additionally, it can be seen that the suggested structural framework of a firm's heterogeneity in cost functions used in our model can offer a straightforward extension to existing policy impact evaluation.
On the R&D giants' shoulders: Do FDI help to stand on them?
Authors: Sandro Montresor, Antonio Vezzani
The paper investigates the extent to which outward FDI affect the MNC's capacity of entering (and remaining in) the club of top R&D world investors, benefiting from performance gains in both financial and economic markets. By merging the European Industrial Research and Innovation Scoreboard with the fDi Markets dataset, we find supporting evidence. Increasing the number of FDI projects helps firms overcome the discontinuities that, in the distribution of R&D expenditures, separate the group of the largest world R&D investors from the top of them. The same is true for the number of FDI projects in R&D, which are also more important than greater FDI portfolios in becoming a top R&D spender. Furthermore, unlike FDI in general, more FDI in R&D guarantee firms to remain in this top club of firms as it increases their capacity of resisting competition for a place among the top R&D spenders. Results at the extensive margin (i.e. the number of FDI projects) are confirmed with respect to the scale of FDI projects (i.e. at the intensive margin). However, increasing their size is not enough to become one of the higest ranking R&D firms. Policy implications about the support to R&D internationalisation are drawn accordingly.